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Instructions for Writing Quality Abstracts
Titles and Affiliations
Titles should be concise, with a clear statement of the variables (independent and dependent), species, housing/condition (corral-living, zoo living, free-ranging, etc.), and for field studies, location of the study. The design should be clear from the wording of the title; for nonexperimental research, avoid words that imply causation.
The full mailing address of the first author should be given; provide institutional affiliations for co-authors only if different from that of the first author.
Body of the Abstract (225 Word Limit)
Below are recommendations for what should be included in an abstract. Remember that not all of these recommended elements apply to all types of studies (and abstracts). Please include all relevant and appropriate components.
Abstracts will be published and may be cited, so prepare a complete summary of your work that can be understood without any supporting or additional information. Please (1) check spelling and grammar carefully, (2) use metric units of measurement, and (3) define all acronyms and nonstandard abbreviations.
Two complete abstracts are reprinted as examples. All have been reproduced with permission of the author(s). While these abstracts might not contain all the recommended elements mentioned above, most elements are included.