Abstract # 1045 Poster # 94:

Scheduled for Thursday, August 18, 2005 07:00 PM-09:00 PM: (Cambridge/Oxford Room) Poster Presentation


Effects of estrus and motherhood on the activities and interactions of wild female Macaca nigrescens

A. Kohlhaas
Department of Biological Sciences, California State Univ., Stanislaus, 801 W. Monte Vista Ave., Turlock, CA 95382, USA
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     Most of the adulthood of wild female nonhuman primates is spent in various stages of reproductive activity. These stages can have different effects on the female’s daily activity and social interactions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of estrus and motherhood in wild female macaques. This study was conducted in Bogani-Nani Wartabone National Park in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. All data were collected on a wild, undisturbed, and unprovisioned Macaca nigrescens population over a 14-month period. Behavioral data included 4400 instantaneous scan samples of visible monkeys. There was a significant difference in how females with infants spent their time as compared to nonestrous females (χ2 = 21.5698, P < 0.001) and as compared to all other adult/subadult females (χ2 = 18.0084, P < 0.001). Overall, females with infants spent more time resting and less time feeding and socializing than other adult females. Estrous females spent more time around adult males (40.9%) than did nonestrous females. Nonestrous females spent relatively equal amounts of time near adult males (18.3%), adult females (27.2%), and juveniles (22.3%). Similarly, estrous females spent proportionately much more time grooming adult males (61.2% of bouts, n = 356) than nonestrous females did (34.0% of bouts, n = 244). In summary, the estrous cycle and motherhood affected female macaque activity and social interactions.