Abstract # 2188 Poster # 176:

Scheduled for Saturday, June 23, 2007 09:16 AM-10:00 AM: Session 16 (North Main Hall E) Poster Presentation

Behavior Research Facilitates Comprehensive Captive Animal Care: The Birth of Behavioral Management

J. L. Weed1 and P. L. O'Neill-Wagner2,3
1Division of Veterinary Resources, Office of Research Services, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA, 2Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, NIH Animal Center Poolesville, 3NICHD, PHS, DHHS
     Revisions to the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (The Guide) have influenced our current understanding of the term ‘Behavioral Management’. We present a historical overview highlighting the origins, development, and application of the concept as it pertains to the care and use of primates in captivity. Between 1972 and 2006 The Guide advanced the idea of promoting ‘behavioral management’ at all organizational levels for laboratories housing primates. Behavioral research findings expanded with innovative approaches to behavior questions through the work of scientists such as Hal Markowitz (1974; 1978). His scientific inquiry in the area of ‘behavior engineering’ preceded what are now considered milestones in the advancement of animal care. In the 1972 Guide, ‘proper management’ of animals was associated with ‘normal behavior’ and the phrase ‘psychological wellbeing’ first appeared. By 1985 the passage of the AWA legislation formally codified the concept of ‘environmental enhancement’ as well as the phrase 'psychological well-being'. Language specific to ‘Behavioral management’ is first published in The Guide in 1996. The final outcome of the scientific and legislative process provided guidelines and regulations using behavior goals as scientifically supported means of achieving animal psychological well-being. ‘Behavioral management’ has entered into the lexicon of science and represents a specific and comprehensive approach to understanding and managing laboratory primates.