Abstract # 2505 Event # 97:

Scheduled for Sunday, September 20, 2009 11:15 AM-11:25 AM: Session 8 (Shell Room) Oral Presentation


BAMBOO, FUNGI, AND THE EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR IN CALLIMICO GOELDII

L. M. Porter1 and P. A. Garber2
1Northern Illinois University, Dept. of Anthropology, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA, 2Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois
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We present the results of ten years of research on Callimico goeldii at a field site in northwestern Bolivia. The annual diet of C. goeldii was composed of fungi [29-39%], fruits [29-31%], arthropods [14-31%], and exudates [1-14%]. The extensive consumption of fungi is unique to C. goeldii among the platyrrhines. C. goeldii groups had large home ranges (114-150ha), and relatively short day ranges (925m+/=320m). Home ranges contained a variety of microhabitat types, with secondary, bamboo, and dense understory forests exploited more than expected based on their availability [for one group, Χ2(5)>35.61, p<0.001; for a second group, Χ2(3)>16.26, p<0.001]. On average, groups contained 4.5 individuals [range 2-9], but decreased in size over time as individuals abandoned areas of their range. Fungi, which were consumed by C. goeldii principally in bamboo forests and tree falls, are unpredictable in both time and space. We present an evolutionary and ecological scenario suggesting that over the last 10 million years, C. goeldii has become specialized to exploit fungi and is the only platyrrhine specifically adapted to live in arborescent-bamboo dominated forests. We further suggest that this specialization has shaped the species’ ecology including its distribution, habitat preferences, and diet, and led to the evolution of single births.