Abstract # 48:

Scheduled for Saturday, September 17, 2011 03:15 PM-03:35 PM: Session 10 (Salon F (Sixth Floor)) Oral Presentation


EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF PRIMATE LENTIVIRUSES IN OLD WORLD MONKEYS (CERCOPITHECIDAE) BRIGITTE E. SANDERS-BEER1 AND VANESSA M. HIRSCH2 1BIOQUAL, INC., ROCKVILLE, MD 20850, USA 2LABORATORY OF MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, NIAID, NIH, BETHESDA, MD 20892, USA

B. E. Sanders
BIOQUAL, Inc., 9600 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
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     Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) were discovered in the late 1980s in several US primate centers by accidental transmission from sooty mangabeys to rhesus macaques. Subsequently, SIVs have been isolated and sequenced from an extensive number of African-origin Old World Primates. Some SIVs have co-evolved with their host, whereas others were acquired by cross-species transmission. Most notably, HIV-1 was introduced into humans by transmission from chimpanzees, and HIV-2 by acquisition from sooty mangabeys. Currently, more than 10 genetic lineages of SIVs are recognized. Some SIVs belong to more than one lineage because they were generated by recombination, due to host co-infection with 2 different SIVs and template switching of the reverse transcriptase during replication. Restrictions factors, such as TRIM 5a, tetherin, and APOBEC3G, may act as barriers to cross-species transmission of various SIVs to nonhuman primates. However, SIVs have acquired accessory viral proteins, i.e. Vif, Vpu and Nef, to overcome cellular restriction factors. Thus, SIVs appear to have coevolved with their hosts and acquired new genes to evade cellular restrictions for optimal replication. The phylogenetic relationship of SIVs described to date and their virus-host relationship will be presented. In addition to SIVs, African and Asian nonhuman primates harbor other lentiviruses, such as Simian T- Lymphotropic Viruses and foamy viruses that are transmittable to humans. A brief history on these other primate retroviruses will also be given.