Abstract # 46:

Scheduled for Saturday, September 17, 2011 02:35 PM-02:55 PM: Session 10 (Salon F (Sixth Floor)) Oral Presentation


S. Kanthaswamy1, A. Premasuthan2, J. Satkoski Trask2,3 and D. G. Smith2,3
1Department of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA, 2Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, 3California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC)

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most frequently used nonhuman primate model in biomedical research. Stem cell, transplantation and translational studies are rapidly growing fields in biomedicine that require identification of selected blood types, including the ABO phenotypes of both the donor and recipient, to prevent fatal immunological reactions during transplantation. In rhesus, the A, B and O (H) antigens are absent from the cell surface, preventing forward typing of ABO phenotypes, but are found in secretions such as saliva. Therefore, phenotypes in the rhesus macaque can be identified using the Saliva Inhibition Test (SIT). Studies based on serological techniques have reported conflicting frequencies of ABO alleles in rhesus populations. It is unclear to what extent these discrepancies result from ABO phenotype frequency variation within their natural geographic ranges or the methods employed. Moreover, serological methods require fresh blood or saliva and cannot directly identify the mutations responsible for the A and B alleles. We developed a real-time quantification Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) method based on sequence specific priming to determine the ABO phenotypes in this species. We phenotyped 78 geographically representative individuals and found this species to exhibit phenotypes that vary in frequency by geographic region. The probability of randomly pairing rhesus macaque donors and recipients that exhibit major ABO phenotype incompatibility is approximately 0.35 and 0.45 for Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques, respectively.