Abstract # 4218 Event # 90:

Scheduled for Friday, June 22, 2012 10:30 AM-10:45 AM: Session 12 (Magnolia) Oral Presentation


PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL EFFECTS OF KETAMINE ON BEHAVIOR OF INFANT RHESUS MONKEYS (MACACA MULATTA): ROLE OF HOUSING ENVIRONMENT AND MONOAMINE OXIDASE-A (MAOA) GENOTYPE.

J. Capitanio1, L. Del Rosso1, L. Calonder1, S. Blozis2 and M. Penedo3
1California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA, 2Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, 3Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, University of California, Davis
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     Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is a commonly used anesthetic in nonhuman primate facilities. Because ketamine readily crosses the placenta, and because evidence suggests ketamine may affect monoamine neurotransmitter systems, we tested the hypotheses that 1) prenatal (and early postnatal) ketamine exposure affects behavior, and 2) these effects may be dependent on MAOA genotype. Using data from an ongoing BioBehavioral Assessment program at CNPRC, we identified 82 animals born into an indoor colony (conception date is known exactly) that were exposed to ketamine pre- or postnatally for colony management (not medical) reasons. Multiple regression revealed that more ketamine exposure during the first or second trimester was associated with greater activity (p<.001), lower emotionality (p<.05), and decreased object contact (p<.01) in 3-4 month old rhesus monkeys, but only for animals with the “low-activity” MAOA genotype. In a second sample (n=231) of monkeys born into outdoor half-acre enclosures (conception date was estimated), a parallel analysis was conducted. Prenatal and postnatal ketamine exposure had an impact on behavior, but unlike in the first sample, the effects of exposure were largely not moderated by MAOA genotype. Together, these results are consistent in showing a relationship between exposures to ketamine and behavioral outcomes, but that housing environment and MAOA genotype also influence the nature of this relationship.