Abstract # 4510 Event # 13:

Scheduled for Wednesday, June 19, 2013 11:45 AM-12:00 PM: (San Geronimo Ballroom B) Symposium


AND BABY MAKES THREE? A PHYLOGENETIC EXPLORATION OF THE EVOLUTION OF MONOGAMY IN NEW WORLD MONKEYS, LEMURS AND TARSIERS

A. H. Muhlberger, M. A. Norconk and C. Chiu
Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
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     Using Mesquite (2.74) we explored the complex evolutionary history and interaction of seven traits associated with monogamy (following Gowaty, 1996) in New World monkeys, lemurs, and tarsiers. Monogamy, in which a male and female exhibit both a sexual and spatial relationship, is widespread but uncommon in primates. We examined pair-living and its correlates including presence of a pair bond, duetting, male (paternal) care of infants (both direct and indirect forms after Kleiman, 1977), territory exclusivity, territorial defense, monomorphism in body size, and a classification of social organization. Pair-living and minimum-territory overlap were identified as keystone characters common to all three superfamilies in this study. Male care of infants, pair bonding and duetting are derived traits. Pair bonding and paternal care co-evolved at least twice in the platyrrhines (Callitrichinae, Callicebus and perhaps Pithecia) and once in Tarsiiformes. The pattern is more complex in lemurs, with pair bonding appearing at the base of three radiations and paternal care evolving later and variably in some indriids and lemurids. In the Aotus clade, data suggest that cohesive pair-living and exclusive territories evolved first, followed by the co-evolution of pair bonding and paternal care. Our results support the view that monogamy exhibits a complex, mosaic pattern of evolution in primates and reconfirms the relevance of using phylogenetic methods to investigate the genetic and behavioral bases of behavior.