Abstract # 58:

Scheduled for Saturday, September 13, 2014 07:00 PM-09:00 PM: Session 11 (Decatur B) Poster Presentation


PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN HUMANS, WILDLIFE, AND LIVESTOCK IN AND AROUND GOMBE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA

D. Elchoufi1, M. Parsons1, D. Travis2, E. V. Lonsdorf3, I. Lipende4, S. Kamenya4 and T. R. Gillespie5
1Emory University, Department of Environmental Sciences, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 3Department of Psychology, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA, USA, 4The Jane Goodall Institute, Kigoma, Tanzania, 5Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University
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     Our research established the prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in humans, livestock, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and baboons (Pabio anubis) living in and around Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We examined risk factors in antimicrobial resistance (AR) acquisition, hypothesizing that the Mitumba chimpanzee community would have higher AR prevalence than the Kasekela community due to its proximity to Mwamgongo, a village bordering the park. From March 2010 to February 2011, fecal samples were collected from humans (n=178), livestock (n=98), and wildlife (n=131) of the greater Gombe ecosystem. All samples were screened for sul1 and sul2 AR genes. Previously collected data on SIV and Cryptosporidium prevalence were tested as possible risk factors for chimpanzee analyses. Chi-square tests of independence, Fisher’s Exact Tests, and McNemar’s tests were used for associations between risk factors and sul positivity. Kasekela had the highest prevalence of AR genes for human and chimpanzees (93.2% and 28.8%, respectively). All wildlife and livestock had resistance (26.2% of chimpanzees, 36.2% of baboons, 77.8% of dogs, 7.1% of sheep, 12% of goats). Humans residing in Kasekela were four times more likely to have AR (OR=4.010) than Mitumba. Positivity for sul1 related to positivity for sul2 in humans (p<0.001) and chimpanzees (p=0.0253). Humans seem to be the likely reservoir for AR genes to wildlife, regardless of human density.