Abstract # 239:

Scheduled for Saturday, June 20, 2015 11:20 AM-11:40 AM: (Cascade E) Oral Presentation


EXPLORING THE SOUND ENVIRONMENT OF ZOOS: BEHAVIORAL AND HORMONAL RESPONSES OF CALLITRICHINE MONKEYS TO ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATIONS

J. D. Wark1,2, M. W. Schook1,2, C. W. Kuhar1, C. T. Snowdon3, P. M. Dennis1,2,4, M. A. Willis2 and K. E. Lukas1,2
1Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 3900 Wildlife Way, Cleveland, OH 44109, USA, 2Case Western Reserve University, 3University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Ohio State University
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     Waterfall features intended to mimic naturalistic settings in zoos are popular but the effect of their sound on animals housed nearby is unclear. We assessed the influence of loud, broadband noise from a waterfall feature on three species of Callitrichine monkeys: Pied tamarin (Saguinus bicolor, n=4), white-fronted marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi, n=4), and Goeldi’s monkey (Callimico goeldii, n=2). The first study consisted of six two-week treatment periods that featured experimental modifications of the waterfall (off/on) and access to quiet off-exhibit areas (access/no access). Behavior and exhibit use were recorded during 15-min focal observations (n=535) using instantaneous point-sampling and all-occurrences methodologies. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed effects models. Monkeys increased monitoring of visitor areas when more visitors were present (t(18)=-2.55, p=0.05) and when the waterfall was on, but only when they did not have off-exhibit access (t(8)=-3.90, p=0.005). When the monkeys had off-exhibit access, Saguinus (t(6)=2.29, p=0.06) and Callithrix (t(6)=2.54, p=0.04) spent less time inactive and Callimico spent more time off exhibit (t(6)=-3.41, p=0.01) when the waterfall was on. In a follow-up study, the waterfall feature had no significant effect on fecal glucocorticoid levels of two pied tamarins, although exhibit use was modified by the waterfall. These results suggest that Callitrichines prefer quiet areas and highlight the importance of providing off-exhibit choices.