Abstract # 146:

Scheduled for Friday, June 19, 2015 03:00 PM-03:15 PM: (Cascade E) Oral Presentation


EFFECTS OF PRENATAL ENVIRONMENT ON REPRODUCTION IN CAPTIVE FEMALE GOLDEN LION TAMARINS (LEONTOPITHECUS ROSALIA) AND MARMOSETS (CALLITHRIX SPP.)

B. M. Frye1, J. Cavanaugh2, J. A. French2, L. G. Rapaport1 and J. Mickelberg3
1Clemson University, Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson, South Carolina 29631, USA, 2Callitrichid Research Center, Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 3Zoo Atlanta
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     In mammals that produce twins, the hormonal environment during gestation may differ according to littermate sex. We examined international studbook data on golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) (n=195) and laboratory records on marmosets (Callithrix spp.) (n=20), both twinning callitrichines, to examine the possible downstream effects of prenatal androgen exposure on female reproduction. We found that female lion tamarins gestated with only female co-twin(s) experienced significantly shorter latencies to first parturition after pairing with an unrelated adult male than did females that had gestated with one or more male co-twins (t=-2.1384, p=0.017). Conversely, gestational environment did not significantly affect this metric in female marmosets (t=-2.994, p=0.102). Secondly, sex-composition of the mother’s gestational environment did not impact the mean number of fetuses produced per reproductive event for either species: the overwhelming majority of births in both species were to twins. Lastly, tamarin offspring born to multiparous mothers that had gestated with males experienced significantly higher survival to 730 days than those born to mothers that had gestated with females (Cox Proportional Hazards Model, p=0.05). Marmoset offspring survival was not affected by this variable. These results suggest that variation in the gestational environment may shape the life-history trajectory in Leontopithecus but not in Callithrix. Further inquiry is needed to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to distinctions between these and other callitrichine species.