Abstract # 44:

Scheduled for Thursday, June 18, 2015 03:35 PM-03:50 PM: (Cascade H) Oral Presentation


A REASSESSMENT OF THE PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SULAWESI MACAQUES BASED ON 3D GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS

M. Anderson and S. R. Frost
Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, 365 Condon Hall, 1218 University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA
line
     The number of recognized Macaca species on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi has varied depending on the methods used. This study applies landmark-based geometric morphometrics and various multivariate analyses to reassess the diversity of macaques on the island. Forty-five three-dimensional landmarks were recorded using a Microscribe 3D-X on 229 wild caught macaque cranial specimens representing 17 species, including 5 Sulawesi (sub)species with known localities from several museum collections. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) was used to superimpose the landmark configurations and scale them to the same size. Principle components analysis (PCA), regression analysis, and Procrustes distances were used to compare shape differences within and among (sub)species and assess the amount of variance associated with different factors. Each analysis was performed on the total sample, as well as separately for each sex. Allometry accounted for the largest amount of cranial shape variation, with differences among taxa being the next most important factor. Variation among Sulawesi taxa was not different from that among the non-Sulawesi species which suggests a species-level of variation for the seven recognized varieties. Males and females both show patterns of morphological similarity consistent with allopatric sub-speciation likely related to the island’s geological history and distinct ecological zones. Although further analyses are necessary, these results support the seven-species model complementing previous genetic studies and designations based on soft tissue morphology in the Sulawesi macaques.