Abstract # 969 Event # 194:

Scheduled for Saturday, August 20, 2005 08:45 AM-09:00 AM: Session 14 (Mayfair Room) Oral Presentation

Efficacy of four novel enrichment items in outdoor group-housed macaques (Macaca mulatta and M. fascicularis): differences in age, sex, and species classes

C. Coke1 and E. R. Patel2
1Panther Tracks Learning Center- PPI, P.O. Box 1588 , Immokalee, FL 34134, USA, 2Cornell University, Dept Psychology, Psychology of Voice and Sound Research Lab
     The efficacy of four novel enrichment items (tires, mirrors, balls, and prima-hedrons) was tested at the Panther Tracks Learning Center colony of outdoor group-housed macaques (Macaca mulatta and M. fascicularis) in Southwest Florida. Each item was tested on 103 individuals housed in 4 same-sex, same-species juvenile and 4 same-sex, same-species adult groups for four continuous days. 30-minute continuous focal follows of the enrichment item were completed twice a day in each of the 8 groups (N = 128 hours). Across all items, juveniles interacted with the items more quickly (Mann-Whitney U, P < 0.01) and at higher rates than adults (Hotelling’s 2-Sample T-test, P < 0.02). Moreover, a higher portion of juveniles than adults interacted with the items (Mann-Whitney U, P < 0.001). Adult males of both species showed the longest latency to approach the items (Kruskal-Wallis, P < 0.02). Across species, juvenile rhesus interacted at higher rates with balls and lower rates with hedrons, tires, and mirrors than juvenile long-tailed macaques (Hotelling’s 2-Sample T-test, P < 0.03). Similarly, rhesus adults interacted with hedrons and tires at lower rates than long-tailed macaque adults (Hotelling’s 2-Sample T-test, P < 0.03). These species differences may be attributable to taxonomic differences in temperament, natural habitat, and origin (wild vs. captive origin). In sum, results suggest that particular age, sex, and species categories influenced interest in particular items, which recommends that enrichment items be catered specifically to the unique preferences of particular age, sex and species classes.