Abstract # 2:

Scheduled for Thursday, June 21, 2007 08:30 AM-09:30 AM: (North Main Hall) Keynote Address

The Chimpanzee Mind: Studies in the Field and the Laboratory

T. Matsuzawa
Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan
     Fieldwork and laboratory work need to go hand in hand to provide us with a complete picture of the life and mind of the chimpanzee. I have called this discipline Comparative Cognitive Science. A community of 14 chimpanzees of 3 generations inhabits an enriched, semi-natural environment at KUPRI. My research partner is named “Ai”, a 30-year-old female chimpanzee. I have been working with Ai since 1977. My colleagues and I have covered various topics in cognition; visual acuity, form perception, face recognition, auditory-visual cross-modal matching, short term memory, imitation, deception, mother-infant interaction and so forth. A community of 12 chimpanzees of 3 generations inhabits the forests at Bossou, Guinea, West Africa. Bossou chimpanzees are well known to use a pair of stones as hammer and anvil to crack open nuts. Since 1986, I have explored developmental changes in tool use technology. The combination of laboratory and field studies has revealed a unique mode of social learning in chimpanzees, called “Education by master-apprenticeship”, 1) Infants’ prolonged exposure to adult behavior based on the strong mother-infant bond, 2) Lack of active teaching (no formal instruction, and no positive/negative feedback from the mother), and 3) The infants’ intrinsic motivation to copy the mother’s behavior. Through education by master-apprenticeship, chimpanzees seem able to pass knowledge and skills from one generation to the next, thereby maintaining their community’s cultural repertoire.