AJP Featured Articles

Modelling infection transmission in primate networks to predict centrality-based risk

Authors: Valéria Romano, Julie Duboscq, Cécile Sarabian, Elodie Thomas, Cédric Sueur and Andrew J.J. MacIntosh

The strength of our interactions with friends, family and strangers alter our risk of acquiring or transmitting infectious diseases. Modern approaches to predicting how pathogens spread through societies, human and animal alike, use a combination of social network analysis and modelling. This approach can also help us understand how social individuals might cope with this particularly salient cost of group-living. In this study, we investigated how central individuals, those who maintain the strongest network of social bonds in their group, might affect the spread of a theoretical infectious agent. We constructed real world, non-human primate grooming networks after observing the social behavior of female Japanese macaques from two free-ranging troops in southern Japan. We then ran a mathematical model, similar to a traditional epidemiological model, which simulated disease transmission and acquisition by individuals in the network. We found that infectious agents moved through the network more efficiently when beginning with central individuals, infecting a larger percentage of individuals in a shorter amount of time. Those central individuals were also most likely to be infected. Interestingly, indirect connections were most predictive of group-level disease spread, whereas direct connections better predicted each individual’s risk of infection. We should thus be careful when generalizing about the influence of individual characteristics on network structure and disease spread, as they may be more relevant in some networks than in others. The effectiveness of both trait-based and centrality-based vaccination efforts may thus differ among groups of the same or similar species.

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Survey of 2014 behavioral management programs for laboratory primates in the United States

Authors: Kate C. Baker

Behavioral management is the element of captive care programs that focuses on addressing behavioral needs and supporting psychological wellbeing.  Behavioral management has evolved since legislation was enacted requiring plans for addressing the psychological wellbeing of nonhuman primates.  The behavioral management of laboratory primates in the United States has not been thoroughly characterized since 2003.  This paper presents the results of a survey of behavioral management programs at 27 facilities and covering a total of 59,636 primates.  The vast majority of laboratory primates are housed socially (83%).  Since 2003, the proportion of indoor-housed primates reported to be housed singly has fallen considerably, from 59% to 35% in the facilities surveyed.  Positive reinforcement training has expanded and is now used at all facilities responding to the survey.  The use of enrichment devices has also increased in the participating facilities.  Behavioral management program staffing has expanded over time in the facilities surveyed, due not only to increased numbers of dedicated behavioral management technicians but also to greater involvement of animal care technicians, suggesting an increase in the integration of behavioral care into animal husbandry.  Behavioral management programs have evolved in line with the philosophy of shifting from a concentration on stimuli (i.e., environmental enrichment) to a more holistic approach to primate care.  These results stand in contrast to recent claims that programs have stagnated. Broad awareness of common practice may assist facilities with program evaluation and assessment of progress in the field can generate recommendations for continuing the advancement of primate behavioral management programs. 


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Previous Abstracts

Thermal consequences of increased pelt loft infer an additional utilitarian function for grooming


Body mass in wild bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus): Ontogeny and sexual dimorphism

Targeting or supporting, what drives patterns of aggressive intervention in fights?

Long-term home range use in white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

First-time rhesus monkey mothers, and mothers of sons, preferentially engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants

Shades of gray mouse lemurs: Ontogeny of female dominance and dominance-related behaviors in a nocturnal primate.

Patterns of Male Dispersal in Verreaux’s Sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) at Kirindy Mitea National Park.

The Influence of Male Takeovers on Female Dispersal in Colobus vellerosus

Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Gorilla with white sclera: a naturally occurring variation in a morphological trait linked to social cognitive functions.

Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2&3 and 1, 25  dihydroxyvitamin D2&3 by Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Primate Multispecies Comparison.

Validation of an acoustic location system to monitor Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) long calls

Influence of age, reproductive cycling status, and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome in baboons (Papio anubis)

Primate Kinship: Contributions from Cayo Santiago

Incorporating ecology and social system into formal hypotheses to guide field studies of color vision in primates

Tool use for food acquisition in a wild mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei).

Long-Term Effects of Tetanus Toxoid Inoculation on the Demography and Life Expectancy of the Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques.

The importance of social play networks for infant or juvenile wild chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

The Development of an Instrument to Measure Global Dimensions of Maternal Care in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Sources of Tooth Wear Variation Early in Life Among Known-Aged Wild Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

Vertical stratification of the nutritional value of fruit: Macronutrients and condensed tannins.

Nutrition and foraging strategies of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Palenque National Park, Mexico.

On the tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee last common ancestor, and the origins of hominine stone tool use.

The adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection

Mountain gorilla ranging patterns: influence of group size and group dynamics

Leaf chemistry as a predictor of primate biomass and the mediating role of food selection: a case study in a folivorous lemur (Propithecus verreauxi)

Using virtual reality to investigate comparative spatial cognitive abilities in chimpanzees and humans

The effect of energetic and psychosocial stressors on glucocorticoids in mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata).

Seasonal variation in the length of the daily activity period in buffy-headed marmosets (Callithrix flaviceps): an important consideration for the analysis of foraging strategies in observational field studies of primates

Diet adaptation of the western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in an isolated and disturbed forest fragment in southern Yunnan, China

Spatial working memory in immersive virtual reality foraging: path organization, traveling distance and search efficiency in humans (Homo sapiens)

The risk of tuberculosis transmission to free-ranging great apes.

Patterns of movement and seed dispersal by three lemur species.

Extra-pair paternity confirmed in wild white-handed gibbons

Death of the (Traveling) Salesman: primates do not show clear evidence of multi-step route planning

Obligate exudativory characterizes the diet of the pygmy slow loris Nycticebus pygmaeus

Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal’s history, current environment, and personality

Chimpanzee nesting patterns in a savanna habitat: Environmental influences and preferences

Developing a Comprehensive and Comparative Questionnaire for Measuring Personality in Chimpanzees using a Simultaneous Top-down/Bottom-up Design

Analyzing visual signals as visual scenes

Food eaten by the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China, in relation to nutritional chemistry

Death of the alpha: within-community lethal violence among chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains National Park

Auditory memory in monkeys: costs and benefits of proactive interference

Cortical Networks for Ethologically Relevant Behaviors in Primates

Did trichromatic color vision and red hair color co-evolve in primates?

Dietary Flexibility of the Brown Howler Monkey throughout its Geographic Distribution 

Contrast Imaging Ultrasound Detects Abnormalities in the Marmoset Ovary

Introducing fecal stable isotope analysis in primate weaning studies

Maternal effects and the endocrine regulation of mandrill growth

Disability, compensatory behavior and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

Consequences of lethal intragroup aggression and alpha male replacement on intergroup relations and home range use in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus)

Co-evolution of facial expression and social tolerance in macaques

Behavioral responses of Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) to variations in food abundance and temperature in Bangliang, Jingxi, China

Muscle mass scaling in primates: An energetic and ecological perspective.

Hormonal and experiential predictors of infant survivorship and maternal behavior in a monogamous primate (Callicebus cupreus).

Inequity aversion in relation to effort and relationship quality in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

Sex differences in the stone tool-use behavior of a wild population of Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

Genetic evidence for dispersal by both sexes in the Central American Squirrel Monkey, Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus

Demography of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in captive environments and its effect on population growth

Genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across species in Old World Monkeys

Social behavior, foraging strategies and fecal glucocorticoids in female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis): Potential fitness benefits of high rank in a forest guenon

Analysis of the hydrogenotrophic microbiota of wild and captive black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in Palenque National Park, Mexico

Social network analysis in the study of nonhuman primates: A historical perspective

Alternative routes to the leader male role in a multi-level society: follower versus solitary male strategies and outcomes in hamadryas baboons

Effects of anthropogenic  disturbance on indri (Indri indri) health in Madagascar.

When and how well can human-socialized capuchins match actions demonstrated by a familiar human?

Death among geladas (Theropithecus gelada): a broader perspective on mummified infants and primate thanatology.

Female philopatry and dominance patterns in wild geladas.

Characterization of Opsin Gene Alleles Affecting Color Vision in a Wild Population of Titi Monkeys (Callicebus brunneus)

A Coevolutionary Relationship Between Striatum Size and Social Play in Nonhuman Primates

Pattern of maternal circulating CRH in laboratory-housed squirrel and owl monkeys.

Male dominance and reproductive success in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica

Ape behavior in two alternating environments: Comparing exhibit and short-term holding areas.