AJP Featured Articles

Destabilization of the Gut Microbiome Marks the End-Stage of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild Chimpanzees.

Authors: Hannah J. Barbian, Yingying Li, Miguel Ramirez, Zachary Klase, Iddi Lipende, Deus Mjungu, Andrew H. Moeller, Michael L. Wilson, Anne E. Pusey, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Frederic D. Bushman and Beatrice

The intestinal microbiome is an important indicator of mammalian health. Many chronic diseases, including HIV-1 infection of humans, are associated with changes in gut microbial communities, which are believed to contribute to disease progression. Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the precursor of the human AIDS virus, can cause immunodeficiency and premature death in wild-living chimpanzees. To determine whether SIVcpz infection is associated with an imbalance of gut microbiota, we deep sequenced fecal samples from infected and uninfected chimpanzees living in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Analyzing both bacterial and viral constituents, we failed to find microbial markers that predicted SIVcpz infection or disease progression. However, SIVcpz infected chimpanzees sampled within five months before their AIDS-related death experienced a significant destabilization of their gut bacterial communities. These findings thus settle the long-standing debate of whether pathogenic HIV/SIV infection can cause alterations of the gut microbiome. SIVcpz infected chimpanzees maintain a stable gut microbiome throughout much of their natural disease course, but die relatively rapidly after the compositional changes in their gut microbiome mark the loss of effective immune control. In contrast, HIV-1 infected humans seem to tolerate a more prolonged course of declining immune functions, at least in part because of effective medical interventions, which independently contribute to alterations of gut bacterial communities. Thus, both HIV-1 and SIVcpz infection seem capable of causing a disruption of gut microbial homeostasis, but the timing and associated health consequences differ between humans and apes.
 

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Diagnostic overview of the illegal trade in primates and law enforcement in Peru.

Authors: Noga Shanee, A. Patricia Mendoza, and Sam Shanee

Peru is one of the richest countries in primate species diversity worldwide. However, very high levels of hunting and illegal trade threaten the future of many of its primates. We investigated the illegal trade in primate pets and bushmeat, estimating that hundreds of thousands of individuals are caught or killed per year. Larger species, such as spider and woolly monkeys, face the highest threat. We found that government authorities lack sufficient staff, capacity, resources, infrastructure and protocols to efficiently combat illegal trade in primates. Also, the complicated legal framework, high levels of corruption and lack of cooperation and antagonism with the public further limit these efforts. Wildlife authorities in Peru are able to confiscate only a fraction of primates traded and mostly intervene in cases of private pet owners rather than traffickers, allowing big wildlife markets to operate openly, some of these responsible for the death of hundreds of primates a week. In the 1960s and 1970s Peru was the main primate exporter in South America, a ban on primate trade reduced drastically the legal primate trade. However, our current estimates show that numbers of illegally traded monkeys sold clandestinely are comparable to those before the ban. We call upon decision makers and international funders to channel their efforts towards ‘on the ground’ actions such as increasing authorities’ ability to act, giving them ‘in action’ training in law enforcement and establishing strict control measures against corruption. 

 

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Previous Abstracts

Do "birds of a feather flock together" or do "opposites attract"?  Behavioral responses and temperament predict success in pairings of rhesus monkeys in a laboratory setting.

A New Conservation Strategy for China – A Model Starting With Primates.
 

Hand preference on unimanual and bimanual tasks in strepsirrhines: The case of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta)

Factors affecting cashew processing by wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus, Kerr 1792).

Modelling infection transmission in primate networks to predict centrality-based risk

Survey of 2014 behavioral management programs for laboratory primates in the United States

Thermal consequences of increased pelt loft infer an additional utilitarian function for grooming

SPATIO-TEMPORAL COMPLEXITY OF CHIMPANZEE FOOD:WHAT TO DO WHEN YOUR MOST ENERGY-RICH FOOD IS IN SHORT SUPPLY?
 

Body mass in wild bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus): Ontogeny and sexual dimorphism
 

Targeting or supporting, what drives patterns of aggressive intervention in fights?

Long-term home range use in white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand
 

First-time rhesus monkey mothers, and mothers of sons, preferentially engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants
 

Shades of gray mouse lemurs: Ontogeny of female dominance and dominance-related behaviors in a nocturnal primate.

Patterns of Male Dispersal in Verreaux’s Sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) at Kirindy Mitea National Park.

The Influence of Male Takeovers on Female Dispersal in Colobus vellerosus

Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Gorilla with white sclera: a naturally occurring variation in a morphological trait linked to social cognitive functions.
 

Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2&3 and 1, 25  dihydroxyvitamin D2&3 by Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Primate Multispecies Comparison.

Validation of an acoustic location system to monitor Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) long calls

Influence of age, reproductive cycling status, and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome in baboons (Papio anubis)

Primate Kinship: Contributions from Cayo Santiago
 

Incorporating ecology and social system into formal hypotheses to guide field studies of color vision in primates

Tool use for food acquisition in a wild mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei).

Long-Term Effects of Tetanus Toxoid Inoculation on the Demography and Life Expectancy of the Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques.

The importance of social play networks for infant or juvenile wild chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

The Development of an Instrument to Measure Global Dimensions of Maternal Care in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Sources of Tooth Wear Variation Early in Life Among Known-Aged Wild Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.
 

Vertical stratification of the nutritional value of fruit: Macronutrients and condensed tannins.

Nutrition and foraging strategies of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Palenque National Park, Mexico.
 

On the tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee last common ancestor, and the origins of hominine stone tool use.
 

The adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection

Mountain gorilla ranging patterns: influence of group size and group dynamics

Leaf chemistry as a predictor of primate biomass and the mediating role of food selection: a case study in a folivorous lemur (Propithecus verreauxi)
 


Using virtual reality to investigate comparative spatial cognitive abilities in chimpanzees and humans
 

The effect of energetic and psychosocial stressors on glucocorticoids in mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata).

Seasonal variation in the length of the daily activity period in buffy-headed marmosets (Callithrix flaviceps): an important consideration for the analysis of foraging strategies in observational field studies of primates

Diet adaptation of the western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in an isolated and disturbed forest fragment in southern Yunnan, China

Spatial working memory in immersive virtual reality foraging: path organization, traveling distance and search efficiency in humans (Homo sapiens)

The risk of tuberculosis transmission to free-ranging great apes.

Patterns of movement and seed dispersal by three lemur species.

Extra-pair paternity confirmed in wild white-handed gibbons
 

Death of the (Traveling) Salesman: primates do not show clear evidence of multi-step route planning
 

Obligate exudativory characterizes the diet of the pygmy slow loris Nycticebus pygmaeus
 

Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal’s history, current environment, and personality

Chimpanzee nesting patterns in a savanna habitat: Environmental influences and preferences
 

Developing a Comprehensive and Comparative Questionnaire for Measuring Personality in Chimpanzees using a Simultaneous Top-down/Bottom-up Design

Analyzing visual signals as visual scenes

Food eaten by the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China, in relation to nutritional chemistry

Death of the alpha: within-community lethal violence among chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains National Park

Auditory memory in monkeys: costs and benefits of proactive interference

Cortical Networks for Ethologically Relevant Behaviors in Primates

Did trichromatic color vision and red hair color co-evolve in primates?

Dietary Flexibility of the Brown Howler Monkey throughout its Geographic Distribution 

Contrast Imaging Ultrasound Detects Abnormalities in the Marmoset Ovary

Introducing fecal stable isotope analysis in primate weaning studies

Maternal effects and the endocrine regulation of mandrill growth

Disability, compensatory behavior and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

Consequences of lethal intragroup aggression and alpha male replacement on intergroup relations and home range use in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus)

Co-evolution of facial expression and social tolerance in macaques

Behavioral responses of Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) to variations in food abundance and temperature in Bangliang, Jingxi, China

Muscle mass scaling in primates: An energetic and ecological perspective.

Hormonal and experiential predictors of infant survivorship and maternal behavior in a monogamous primate (Callicebus cupreus).

Inequity aversion in relation to effort and relationship quality in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

Sex differences in the stone tool-use behavior of a wild population of Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).
 

Genetic evidence for dispersal by both sexes in the Central American Squirrel Monkey, Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus
 

Demography of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in captive environments and its effect on population growth

Genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across species in Old World Monkeys

Social behavior, foraging strategies and fecal glucocorticoids in female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis): Potential fitness benefits of high rank in a forest guenon

Analysis of the hydrogenotrophic microbiota of wild and captive black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in Palenque National Park, Mexico
 

Social network analysis in the study of nonhuman primates: A historical perspective

Alternative routes to the leader male role in a multi-level society: follower versus solitary male strategies and outcomes in hamadryas baboons

Effects of anthropogenic  disturbance on indri (Indri indri) health in Madagascar.

When and how well can human-socialized capuchins match actions demonstrated by a familiar human?

Death among geladas (Theropithecus gelada): a broader perspective on mummified infants and primate thanatology.

Female philopatry and dominance patterns in wild geladas.

Characterization of Opsin Gene Alleles Affecting Color Vision in a Wild Population of Titi Monkeys (Callicebus brunneus)

A Coevolutionary Relationship Between Striatum Size and Social Play in Nonhuman Primates

Pattern of maternal circulating CRH in laboratory-housed squirrel and owl monkeys.

Male dominance and reproductive success in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica

Ape behavior in two alternating environments: Comparing exhibit and short-term holding areas.