Selected books on enrichment

Erwin, J, Maple. T.L., and Mitchell, G. (Eds). (1979). “Captivity and Behavior: Primates in Breeding Colonies, Laboratories and Zoos. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.

Fortmen, J.D., Hewett, T.A., and Bennett, B. T. (2002). “The Laboratory Nonhuman Primate”. CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York, and Washington D.C.

Kleiman, D. G., Allen, M. E., Thompson, K. V., and Lumpkin, S. (Eds) (1996). “Wild Mammals in Captivity”. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Markowitz, H. (1982). "Behavioral Enrichment at the Zoo." Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

National Research Council (1998). “The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates”. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. **This book is available online 

Novak, M. and Petto, A. (1991). “Through the Looking Glass: Issues of Psychological Well-being in Captive Nonhuman Primates”. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Reinhardt, V. (2008). “Taking Better Care of Monkeys and Apes”. Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, D.C.

Reinhardt, V., and Reinhardt, A. (2008). “Environmental Enrichment and Refinement for Nonhuman Primates Kept in Research Laboratories: A Photographic Documentation and Literature Review”. Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, D.C.

Segal, E.F. (1989). “Housing, care and psychological well-being of captive and laboratory primates. William Andrew Publishing, London.

Shepherdson, D. J., Mellen, J. D., and Hutchins, M. (Eds) (1998). “Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals”. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Vernes, M.K., and Louwerse, A. L. (Eds) (2010). “BPRC’s Enrichment Manual for Macaques and Marmosets”. Biomedical Primate Research Centre, The Netherlands.

Winnicker, C., Honess, P., Schapiro, S. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Lee, R., McCowan, B., Oettinger, and Simmons, J. H. (2013). “A Guide to the Behavior and Enrichment of Laboratory Macaques”. Charles River Laboratories.

Wolfe-Coote, S. (Ed.) (2005). “The Laboratory Primate”. Elsevier Academic Press, London.

Wolfensohn, S. and Honess, P. (2005) “Handbook of Primate Husbandry and Welfare”. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, U.K.

Yerkes, R. M. (1925). "Almost Human." Century, New York.

Young, R. J. (2003). “ Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals”. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, U.K.

Specific Categories


Baer, J. F. (1998). A veterinary perspective of potential risk factors in environmental enrichment. In "Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals" (D. J. Shepherdson, J. D. Mellen and M. Hutchins, Eds.), pp. 277-301. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Bayne, K. (2005). Potential for unintended consequences of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals and research results. ILAR J 46, 129-139.

Bayne, K. A. L, Dexter, S. L., Hurst, J. K., Strange, G. M., and Hill, E. E. (1993). Kong toys for laboratory primates: are they really an enrichment of just fomites? Laboratory Animal Science 43, 78-85.

Hahn, N. E., Lau, D., Eckert, K. and Markowitz, H. (2000). Environmental enrichment-related injury in a macaque (Macaca fascicularis): intestinal linear foreign body. Comp Med 50, 556-558.

Honess, P.E. and Marin, C.M. (2006). Enrichment and aggression in primates. Neuroscience Biobehav Rev. 30, 413-436.

Physical enrichment

Anderson, M.R. (2014). Reaching new heights: The effect of an environmentally enhanced outdoor enclosure on gibbons in a zoo setting. J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 17, 216-227.

Baker, K. C. (1997). Straw and forage material ameliorate abnormal behaviors in adult chimpanzees. Zoo Biology 16, 225-236.

Beisner, B. A. and Isbell, L. A. (2008). Ground substrate affects activity budgets and hair loss in outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Am J Primatol 70, 1160-1168.

Doane, C.J., Andrews, K., Schaefer, L.J., Morelli,. N, McAllister, S., and Coleman, K. (2013). Dry bedding provides cost-effective enrichment for group-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 52, 247-52.

Gottlieb, D.H., O’Connor, J. R., and Coleman, K. (2014). Using porches to decrease feces painting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 53, 653-656.

Kessel, A. L. and Brent, L. (1998). Cage toys reduce abnormal behavior in individually housed pigtail macaques. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 1, 227-234.

Line, S.W., Morgan, K.N., and Markowitz, H. (1991). Simple toys do not alter the behavior of aged rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology 10, 473-484.

Luchins, K.R., Baker, K.C., Gilbert, M.H., Blanchard, J.L., and= Bohm, R.P. (2011) Manzanita wood: a sanitizable enrichment option for nonhuman primates. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 50, 884-7.

Nakamichi, M. and Asanuma, K. (1998). Behavioral effects of perches on group-housed adult female Japanese monkeys. Percept Mot Skills 87, 707-714.

Pruetz, J.D. and Bloomsmith, M. (1992). Comparing two manipulable objects as enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Animal Welfare 11, 127-137.

Renner, M. J., Feiner, A.J., Orr, M.G., and Delaney, B.A. (2000). Environmental enrichment for New World primates: Introducing food-irrelevant objects and direct and secondary effects. J Applied Anim Welf Sci 3, 23-32.

Robins, J.G., and Waitt, C.D. (2011). Improving the welfare of captive macaques (Macaca sp.) through the use of water as enrichment. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 14, 75-84.

Schapiro, S.J., Bloomsmith, M.A., Porter, L.M. and Suarez, S.A. (1996). Enrichment effects on rhesus monkeys successively housed singly, in pairs, and in groups. Appl Anim Behav Sci 48, 159-171.

Schapiro, S.J., Bloomsmith, M.A., Suarez, S.A. and Porter, L.M. (1996). Effects of social and inanimate enrichment on the behavior of yearling rhesus monkeys. Am J Primatol 40, 247-260.

Weed, J.L., Baker, S.C., Harbaugh, S.W., and Erwin, J. (1995). Innovative enclosures for laboratory primate: Evaluation of a "breeding condominium." Lab Animal, 24, 28-32.

Whittaker, M., Laule, G., Perlman, J., Schapiro, S. and Keeling, M. (2001). A behavioral management approach to caring for great apes. In "The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century Conference Proceedings", Brookfield Zoo.

Williams, L.E., Abee, C.R., Barnes, S.R., and Ricker, R.B. (1988). Cage design and configuration for an arboreal species of primate. Lab Anim Sci. 38, 289-291.

Foraging enrichment

Baker, K.C., and Springer, D.A. (2006). Frequency of feeding enrichment and response of laboratory nonhuman primates to unfamiliar people. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci, 45, 69-73.

Bayne, K. (1991). The reduction of abnormal behaviors in individually housed rhesus monkeys with a foraging/grooming board. Am J Primatol 23, 23-35.

Bayne, K., Dexter, S.L. and Strange, G.M. (1993). The effects of food treat provisioning and human interaction on the behavioral well-being of rhesus monkeys. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 32, 6-9.

Brent, L., and Eichberg, J.W. (1991). Primate puzzleboard: A simple environmental enrichment device for captive chimpanzees. Zoo Biology 10.4, 353-360.

Crockett, C.M., Bellanca, R.U., Heffernan, K.S., Ronan, D.A. and Bonn, W.F. (2001). Puzzle ball foraging device for laboratory monkeys. Lab Primate Newsl 40, 4-7.

Holmes, S.N., Riley, J.M., Juneau, P., Pyne, D., and Hofing, G.L. (1995). Short-term evaluation of a foraging device for non-human primates. Lab Anim (London) 29, 364-69

Lam, K., Rupniak, N.M. and Iversen, S.D. (1991). Use of a grooming and foraging substrate to reduce cage stereotypies in macaques. J Med Primatol 20, 104-109.

Lutz, C.K. and Farrow, R.A. (1996). Foraging device for singly housed longtailed macaques does not reduce stereotypies. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 35, 75-78.

Maloney, M.A., Meiers, S.T., White, J. and Romano, M.A. (2006). Effects of three food enrichment items on the behavior of black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) and Ringtail Lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Henson Robinson Zoo, Springfield, Illinois. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 9, 111-127.

Pyle, D.A., Bennett, A.L., Zarcone, T.J., Turkkan, J.S., Adams, R.J., Hienz, R.D. (2002). Use of two food foraging devices by singly housed baboons. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35, 15-21.

Runeson, E.P., Lee, G.H., Crockett, C.M. and Bellanca, R.U. (2011). Evaluating paint rollers as an intervention for alopecia in laboratory monkeys, Macaca nemestrina. J Appl Anim Welf Sci, 14, 138-149.

Sensory Enrichment

Ablard, K.M. and Nekaris, K.A.I. (2008). Naturalizing the captive environment of slender lorises (Loris lydekkerianus nordicus) via olfactory enrichment. Primate Eye 96, 281.

Andrews, G. and Iliff, S.A. (2005). The use of olfactory stimulation as a means of environmental enhancement. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 44, 98.

Bloomsmith, M. A. and Lambeth, S. P. (2000). Videotapes as enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology 19, 541-551.

Claxton, A.M. (2011) The potential of the human–animal relationship as an environmental enrichment for the welfare of zoo-housed animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133, 1-10.

Harris, L.D., Briand, E.J., Orth, R., and Galbicka, G. (1999). Assessing the value of television as environmental enrichment for individually housed rhesus monkeys: a behavioral economic approach. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 38, 48-53.

Howell, S., Schwandt, M., Fritz, J., Roeder, E. and Nelson, C. (2003). A stereo music system as environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Lab Anim (NY) 32, 31-36.

McDermott, J. and Hauser, M.D. (2007). Nonhuman primates prefer slow tempos but dislike music overall. Cognition  104, 654-68.

Meade, T.M., Hutchinson, E., Krall, C., and Watson, J. (2014). Use of an aquarium as a novel enrichment item for singly housed rhsus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 53, 472-477.

Ogura T, Matsuzawa T. Video preference assessment and behavioral management of single-caged japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by movie presentation. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2012; 15: 101-12.

Platt, D.M. and Novak, M.A. (1997). Videostimulation as enrichment for captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Appl Anim Behav Sci 52, 39-155.

Richardson, A.S., Lambeth, S.P. and Schapiro, S.J. (2006). Control over the auditory environment: a study of music preference in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Int J Primatol 27, 423.

Snowdon, C.T. and Teie, D. (2010). Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music. Biology Letters 6, 30-32.

Wells, D.L. (2009). Sensory stimulation as environmental enrichment for captive animals: A review. Appl Anim Behav Sci 118, 1-11.

Occupational enrichment (does not include PRT)

Celli, M.L., Tomanaga, M., Udono, T., Teramoto, M., and Nagano, K. (2003). Tool use task as environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81, 171-182.

Griffis, C.M., Martin, A.L., Perlman, J.E., Bloomsmith, M.A. (2013). Play caging benefits the behavior of singly  housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 52, 34-40.

Fontenot, M.B., Wilkes, M.N., Lynch, C.S.(2006) Effects of outdoor housing on self-injurious and stereotypic behavior in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 45, 35-43.

Kessel, A.L., and Brent, L. (1995). An activity cage for baboons, part II: long-term effects and management issues. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 34, 80-3.

Kurtycz, L.M., Wagner, K.E., and Ross, S.R. (2014). The choice to access outdoor areas affects the behavior of great apes. J Appl An Welf Sci. 1-13.

Lincoln, H., Andrews, M. W. and Rosenblum, L. A. (1995). Pigtail macaque performance on a challenging joystick task has important implications for enrichment and anxiety within a captive environment. Lab Anim Sci 45, 264-248.

Storey, P.L., Turner, P.V. and Tremblay, J.L. (2000). Environmental enrichment for rhesus macaques: a cost-effective exercise cage. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 39, 14-16.

Tarou, L.R., Kuhar, C.W., Adcock, D., Bloomsmith, M.A. and Maple, T. L. (2004). Computer-assisted enrichment for zoo-housed orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Animal Welfare 13, 445-453.

Wolff, A., and Rupert, G. (1991). A practical assessment of a nonhuman primate exercise program. Lab Anim 20, 36-39.


Baker, K.C., Weed, J.L., Crockett, C.M. and Bloomsmith, M A. (2007). Survey of environmental enhancement programs for laboratory primates. Am J Primatol 69, 377-394.

Barbosa, M.N., and da Silva Mota, M.T.  (2009). Behavioral and hormonal response of common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, to two environmental conditions. Primates 50, 253-260.

Bayne, K.A.L., Hurst, J.K., and Dexter, S.L. (1992). Evaluation of the preference to and behavioral effects of an enriched environment on male rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Animal Science, 42, 38-45.

Bayne, K., Würbel, H. (2014). The impact of environmental enrichment on the outcome variability and scientific validity of laboratory animal studies. Rev Sci Tech. 33, 273-80.

Bloomsmith, M.A., Brent, L.Y. and Schapiro, S.J. (1991). Guidelines for developing and managing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates. Lab Anim Sci 41, 372-377.

Bloomsmith, M.A. and Else, J.G. (2005). Behavioral management of chimpanzees in biomedical research facilities: the state of the science. ILAR J 46, 192-201.

Boinski, S., Swing, S.P., Gross, T.S., and Davis, J.K (1999). Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness. Am J Primatol 48, 49-68.

Bourgeois, S. R. and Brent, L. (2005). Modifying the behaviour of singly caged baboons: Evaluating the effectiveness of four enrichment techniques. Animal Welfare 14, 71-81.

Buchanan-Smith, H.M. (2011). Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories. Advances in Science and Research 5, 41-56.

Carlstead, K. and Shepherdson, D. (1994). Effects of environmental enrichment on reproduction. Zoo Biology 13, 447-458.

Coleman, K. (2012). Individual differences in temperament and behavioral management practices for nonhuman primates. Appl Anim Behav Sci 137, 106-13.

Coleman, K., Bloomsmith, M.A., Crockett, C.M., Weed, J.L., and Schapiro, S.J. (2012). Behavioral management, enrichment and psychological well-being of laboratory nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardif S, Morris T, editors. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research. London, UK: Academic Press; p. 149-76.

Crockett, C.M. (1990). Psychological well-being and enrichment workshop held at Primate Centers' Directors' meeting. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 29, 3-6.

Desmond, T. (1994). Behavioral management: an integrated approach to animal care. AZA Conference, 19-22.

Fox, C., Merali,Z., and Harrison C. (2006). Therapeutic and protective effect of environmental enrichment against psychogenic and neurogenic stress. Behavioural brain research 175, 1-8.

Gluck, J.P., Harlow, H.F., and Schiltz, K.A. (1973). Differential effect of early enrichment and deprivation on learning in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). J Comp Physiol Psych 84, 598-604.

Hosey, G.R. (2005). How does the zoo environment affect the behaviour of captive primates? Appl Anim Behav Sci. 105, 107-129.

Huber, H.F., and Lewis, K.P. (2011). An assessment of gum-based environmental enrichment for captive gummivorous primates. Zoo Biol., 30 ,  71-78.

Hubrecht, R.C. (2010). Enrichment: animal welfare and experimental outcomes. In " The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory and Other Research Animals" (R. Hubrecht and J. Kirkwood, Eds). pp. 137-146. Wiley-Blackwell, London

Jennings, M., Prescott, M. J., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Gamble, M. R., Gore, M., Hawkins, P., Hubrecht, R., Hudson, S., Keeley, J. R., Morris, K., Morton, D. B., Owen, S., Pearce, P. C., Robb, D., Rumble, R. J., Wolfensohn, S. and Buist, D. (2009). Refinements in husbandry, care and common procedures for non-human primates: Ninth report of the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement. Lab Anim 43 Suppl 1, 1-47.

Keeling, M.E., Alford, P.L. and Bloomsmith, M.A. (1991). Decision analysis for developing programs of psychological well-being: A bias-for-action approach. In "Through the Looking Glass" (M. A. Novak and A. J. Petto, Eds.), pp. 57-65. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Laule, G. (1993). The use of behavioral management techniques to reduce or eliminate abnormal behavior. Animal Welfare 4, 1-2 and 8-11.

Lutz, C.K. and Novak, M.A. (2005). Environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates: theory and application. ILAR J 46, 178-191.

Lutz, C.K., Well, A. and Novak, M. (2003). Stereotypic and self-injurous behavior in rhesus macaques: a survey and retrospective analysis of environment and early experience. Am J Primatol 60, 1-15.

Markowitz, H. (1975). Analysis and control of behavior in the zoo. Research in Zoos and Aquariums: A Symposium, 77-90.

Márquez-Arias, A., Santillan-Doherty, A.M., Arenas-Rosas, R.V., Gasca-Matias, M.P., and Munoz-Delgado, J. (2010). Environmental enrichment for captive stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). J Med Primatol 39, 32-40.

Newberry, R.C. (1995). Environmental enrichment: Increasing the biological relevance of captive environments. Appl Anim Behav Sci 44, 229-243.

Novak, M.A. (2003). Self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys: new insights into its etiology, physiology, and treatment. Am J Primatol 59, 3-19.

Novak, M.A. and Meyer, J.S. (2009). Alopecia: possible causes and treatments, particularly in captive nonhuman primates. Comp Med 59, 18-26.

Rawlins, J.M., Johnson, J.G. and Coleman, K. (2004). The effect of novelty on device use in female rhesus macaques. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 43, 96.

Schapiro, S.J. and Lambeth, S.P. (2007). Control, choice, and assessments of the value of behavioral management to nonhuman primates in captivity. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 10,39-47.

Shepherdson, D.J. (1998). Introduction: Tracing the path of environmental enrichment in zoos. In "Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals " (D. Shepherdson, J. Mellen and M. Hutchins, Eds.), pp. 1-12. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Schneider, M.L., Moore, C.F., Suomi, S.J., and Champoux, M. (1991) Laboratory assessment of temperament and emvironmental enrichment in rhesus monkey infants (Macaca mulatta). Am J Primatol. 25, 137-55.

Tarou, L.R., and Bashaw, M.J. (2007). Maximizing the effectiveness of environmental enrichment: suggestions from the experimental analysis of behavior. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 102, 189-204.

Thom, J.P. and Crockett, C.M. (2008). Managing environmental enhancement plans for individual research projects at a national primate research center. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 47, 51-57.

Weed, J.L. and Raber, J.M. (2005). Balancing animal research with animal well-being: establishment of goals and harmonization of approaches. ILAR J 46, 118-128.

Weed, J.L. and O'Neill-Wagner, P.L. (2006). Animal behavior research findings facilitate comprehensive captive animal care: The birth of behavioral management. Environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates resource guide: Animal Welfare Information Center

Wood, W. (1998). Interactions among environmental enrichment, viewing crowds, and zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biol 17, 211-230.