Social Housing References

Benefits of Social Housing

Baker KC, Bloomsmith MA, Oettinger B, Neu K, Griffis C, Schoof V, Maloney M. 2012. Benefits of pair housing are consistent across a diverse population of rhesus macaques. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 137(3):148-156.

DiVincenti Jr L, Wyatt JD. 2011. Pair housing of macaques in research facilities: a science-based review of benefits and risks. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 50(6):856-863.

Doyle LA, Baker KC, Cox LD. 2008. Physiological and behavioral effects of social introduction on adult male rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 70(6):542-550.

Gilbert MH, Baker KC. 2011. Social buffering in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): Effects of stressful events in single vs. pair housing. Journal of Medical Primatology 40(2):71-78.

Kessel A, Brent L. 2001. The rehabilitation of captive baboons. Journal of Medical Primatology 30(2):71-80.

Mallapur A, Waran N, Sinha A. 2005. Factors influencing the behaviour and welfare of captive lion-tailed macaques in Indian zoos. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 91(3–4):337-353.

Olsson IAS, Westlund K. 2007. More than numbers matter: The effect of social factors on behaviour and welfare of laboratory rodents and non-human primates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 103(3):229-254.

Weed JL, Wagner PO, Byrum R, Parrish S, Knezevich M, Powell DA. 2003. Treatment of persistent self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys through socialization: A preliminary report. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 42(5):21-23.

General Considerations for Social Housing

Bloomsmith MA, Baker KC. 2001. Social management of captive chimpanzees. In: Brent L, editor. The Care and Management of Captive Chimpanzees. San Antonio, TX: American Society of Primatologists. p 205-242.

Bloomsmith MA, Else JG. 2005. Behavioral management of chimpanzees in biomedical research facilities: The state of the science. ILAR Journal 46(2):192-201.

Brent L. 2007. Life-long well being: Applying animal welfare science to nonhuman primates in sanctuaries. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1):55-61.

Buchanan-Smith HM. 1997. Considerations for the housing and handling of New World primates in the laboratory.  In: Reinhardt V, editor. Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute. p 75-84.

Coe CL. 1991. Is social housing of primates always the optimal choice? In: Novak MA, Petto AJ, editors. Through the Looking Glass: Issues of Psychological Well-Being in Captive Nonhuman Primates. Washington, DC: APA. p 69-77.

Hosey GR. 2005. How does the zoo environment affect the behaviour of captive primates? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 90(2):107-129.

Novak M. 2004. Housing for captive nonhuman primates: the balancing act. In: Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, editors. The Development of Science-Based Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Care: Proceedings of the November 2003 International Workshop. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. p 79-85.

Rennie AE, Buchanan-Smith HM. 2006. Refinement of the use of non-human primates in scientific research. Part II: Housing, husbandry, and acquisition. Animal Welfare 15:215-238.

Reinhardt V, Liss C, Stevens C. 1995. Social housing of previously single-caged macaques: What are the options and the risks. Animal Welfare 4(4):307-328.

Seelig, D. 2007. A tail of two monkeys: social housing for nonhuman primates in the research laboratory setting. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1):21-30.

Impacts of Social Housing on Development

Andrews MW, Rosenblum LA. 1994. The development of affiliative and agonistic social patterns in differentially reared monkeys.  Child Development 65(5):1398-1404.

Bard KA, Gardner KH. 1996. Influences on development in infant chimpanzees: enculturation, temperament, and cognition. In: Russon AE, Bard KA, Parker ST, editors. Reaching into thought: the minds of the great apes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 235-255.

Bellanca RU, Crockett CM. 2002. Factors predicting increased incidence of abnormal behavior in male pigtailed macaques. Amercian Journal of Primatology 58(2):57-69.

Bloomsmith MA, Baker KC, Ross SR, Lambeth SP. 2006. Early rearing conditions and captive chimpanzee behavior: Some surprising findings. In: Sackett GP, Ruppenthal GC, Elias K, editors. Nursery Rearing of Nonhuman Primates in the 21st Century. New York: Springer. p. 289-312.

Bloomsmith MA, Pazol KA, Alford PL. 1994. Juvenile and adolescent chimpanzee behavioral development in complex groups. Applied Animal Behavior Science 39:73-87.

Chamove AS. 1973. Rearing infant rhesus together. Behaviour 47:48-66.

Chamove AS, Rosenblum LA, Harlow HF. 1973. Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) raised only with peers. A pilot study. Animal Behaviour 21(2):316-325.

Cocks, L. 2007. Factors influencing the well-being and longevity of captive female orangutans. International Journal of Primatology 28(2):429-440.

Conti G, Hansman C, Heckman JJ, Novak MF, Ruggiero A, Suomi SJ. 2012. Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(23):8866-8871.

Crockett CM. 2006. Animal welfare regulations and nursery rearing. In: Sackett GP, Ruppenthal GC, Elias K, editors. Nursery Rearing of Nonhuman Primates in the 21st Century. New York: Springer. p 33-48.

Davenport RK, Rogers CM, Rumbaugh DM. 1973. Long-term cognitive deficits in chimpanzees associated with early impoverished rearing. Developmental Psychology 9(3), 343-347.

Goosen C, Schrama A, Brinkhof H, Schonk J, van Hoek LA. 1983. Housing conditions and breeding success of chimpanzees at the primate center TNO. Zoo Biology 2(4):295-302.

Hennessy MB, Kaplan JN, Mendoza SP, Lowe EL, Levine S. 1979. Separation distress and attachment in surrogate-reared squirrel monkeys. Physiology & Behavior 23(6):1017-1023.

Higley JD, Hopkins WD, Thompson WW, Byrne EA, Hirsch RM, Suomi SJ. 1992. Peers as primary attachment sources in yearling rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Developmental Psychology 28(6):1163-1171.

Horvat JR, Kraemer HC. 1981. Infant socialization and maternal influence in chimpanzees. Folia Primatolgica 36-99-100.

King NE, Mellen JD. 1994. The effects of early experience on adult copulatory behavior in zoo-born chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology 13(1):51-59.

Lubach GR, Coe CL, Ershler WB. 1995. Effects of early rearing environment on immune-responses of infant Rhesus monkeys.  Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 9(1):31-46.

Lutz CK, Davis EB, Ruggiero AM, Suomi SJ. 2007. Early predictors of self-biting in socially-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 69(5):584-590.

Maki S, Fritz J, England N. 1993. An assessment of early differential rearing conditions on later behavioral development in captive chimpanzees. Infant Behavioral Development 16:373-381.

Markham RJ. 1990. Breeding orangutans at Perth Zoo: Twenty years of appropriate husbandry. Zoo Biology 9(2): 171-182.

Markus N, Croft D. 1995. Play behaviour and its effects on social development of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates 36(2):213-225.

Marriner LM, Drickamer LC. 1994. Factors influencing stereotyped behavior of primates in a zoo. Zoo Biology 13(3):267-275.

Martin JE. 2002. Early life experiences: Activity level and abnormal behaviours in resocialised chimpanzees. Animal Welfare 11(4):419-436.

Mason WA. 1991. Effects of social interaction on well-being: developmental aspects. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4):323-328.

Mineka S, Gunnar M, Champoux M. 1986. Control and early socioemotional development: Infant rhesus monkeys reared in controllable versus uncontrollable environments.  Child Development 57(5):1241-1256.

Meder, A. 1989. Effects of hand-rearing on the behavioral development of infant and juvenile gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla). Developmental Psychobiology 22(4):357-376.

Menzel Jr EW. 1964. Patterns of responsiveness in chimpanzees reared through infancy under conditions of environmental restriction. Psychologische Forschung 27(4), 337-365.

Murrey LE. 1998. The effects of group structure and rearing strategy on personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Chester, London, ZSL and Twycross Zoos. International Zoo Yearbook 36:97-108.

Novak MA & Harlow HF. 1975. Social recovery of monkeys isolated for the first year of life: I. Rehabilitation and therapy. Developmental Psychology 11(4):453-465.

Novak MF, Sackett GP. 1997. Pair-rearing infant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) using a “rotating- peer” rearing strategy. American Journal of Primatology 41(2):141-149.

Pazol KA, Bloomsmith MA. 1993. The development of stereotyped body rocking in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) reared in a variety of nursery settings. Animal Welfare2:113-129.

Porton I, Niebruegge K. 2006. The Changing Role of Hand Rearing in Zoo-Based Primate Breeding Programs. In: Sackett G, Ruppentahal G, Elias K, editors. Nursery Rearing of Nonhuman Primates in the 21st Century. New York: Springer. p 21-31.

Rommeck I, Gottlieb DH, Strand SC, McCowan B. 2009. The effects of four nursery rearing strategies on infant behavioral development in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 48(4):395-401.

Russell JL, Lyn H, Schaeffer JA, Hopkins WD. 2011. The role of socio-communicative rearing environments in the development of social and physical cognition in apes. Developmental Science 14(6):1459-1470.

Ryan S, Thompson SD, Roth AM, Gold KC. 2002. Effects of hand-rearing on the reproductive success of western lowland gorillas in North America. Zoo Biology 21(4):389-401.

Sackett GP. 1965. Effects of rearing conditions upon the behavior of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Child Development 36(4):855-868.

Sackett GP, Ruppenthal GC, Davis AE. 2002. Survival, growth, health , and reproduction following nursery rearing compared with mother rearing in pigtailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). American Journal of Primatology 56(3):165-183.

Sackett GP, Ruppenthal G, Elias K. eds. 2006.  Nursery Rearing of Nonhuman Primates in the 21st Century. New York: Springer.

Stevens HE, Leckman JF, Coplan JD, Suomi SJ. 2009. Risk and resilience: early manipulation of macaque social experience and persistent behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 48(2):114-127.

Suomi SJ, Harlow HF, Novak MA. 1974. Reversal of social deficits produced by isolation rearing in monkeys. Journal of Human Evolution 3(6):527-528.

Walsh S, Bramblett CA, Alford PL. 1982. A vocabulary of abnormal behaviors in restrictively reared chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 3: 315-319.

Worlein JM, Sackett G P. 1997. Social development in nursery-reared pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).  American Journal of Primatology 41(1): 23-35.

Introduction Strategies

Alford PL, Bloomsmith MA, Keeling ME, Beck TF. 1995. Wounding aggression during the formation and maintenance of captive, multimale chimpanzee groups. Zoo Biology 14(4):347-359.

Bernstein I. 1969. Introductory techniques in the formation of pigtail monkey troops. Folia Primatologica 10(1-2):1-19.

Bernstein IS. 1971. The influence of introductory techniques on the formation of captive mangabey groups. Primates 12(1):33-44.

Bloomsmith MA, Baker KC, Ross SK, Lambeth SP. 1999. Chimpanzee behavior during the process of social introductions. In: American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) Annual Conference Proceedings , p 270-273.

Brent L, Kessel AL, Barrera H. 1997. Evaluation of introduction procedures in captive chimpanzees. Zoo Biology,16(4): 335-342.

Fragaszy D, Baer J, Adams-Curtis L. 1994. Introduction and integration of strangers into captive groups of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). International Journal of Primatology 15(3):399-420.

Fritz J, Howell S. 2001. Captive chimpanzee social group formation. In: Brent L, editor. The Care and Management of Captive Chimpanzees. San Antonio, TX: American Society of Primatologists.

Lynch R. 1998. Successful pair-housing of male macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 37:4-5.

Majolo B, Buchanan-Smith HM, Morris K. 2003. Factors affecting the successful pairing of unfamiliar common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) females: Preliminary results. Animal Welfare 12:327-337.

Reinhardt V. 1994. Continuous pair-housing of caged Macaca mulatta: Risk evaluation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 33(1):1-4.

Reinhardt V. 1994. Pair-housing rather than single-housing for laboratory rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology 23(8):426-431.

Vermeer J. 1997. The formation of a captive squirrel monkey group. International Zoo News 146-149.

Watson LM. 2002. A successful program for same-and cross-age pair-housing adult and subadult male Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 41(2):6-9.

Williams LE, Abee CR. 1988. Aggression with mixed age-sex groups of Bolivian squirrel monkeys following single animal introductions and new group formations. Zoo Biology 7(2):139-145.

Wojciechowski S. 2004. Introducing a fourth primate species to an established mixed-species exhibit of African monkeys.Zoo Biology 23(2):95-108.

Alternative Indoor Caging Social Housing Options

Baker KC, Bloomsmith MA, Oettinger B, Neu K, Griffis C, Schoof VAM. 2014. Comparing options for pair housing rhesus macaques using behavioral welfare measures. American Journal of Primatology 76:30-42.

Baker, KC Crockett, CM, Lee GH, Oettingerb BC, Schoof V, Thom JP. 2012. Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: Behavior in protected contact versus full contact. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 15:126-143.

Bayne K. 1991. Alternatives to continuous social housing. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4):355-359.

Crockett CM, Bellanca RU, Bowers CL, Bowden DM. 1997. Grooming-contact bars provide social contact for individually-caged laboratory macaques. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36:53-60.

Lee GH, Thom JP, Chu KL, Crockett CM. 2012. Comparing the relative benefits of grooming contact and full-contact pairing for laboratory-housed adult female Macaca fascicularis. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 137:157-165.

Watson LM. 2010. Effectiveness of perforated plexiglass dividers as social grooming devices between neighboring, individually housed adult male Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 49(4):1-5.

Group Composition and Maintenance in Captivity

Augustsson A, Hau J. 1999. A simple ethological monitoring system to assess social stress in group-housed laboratory rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology 28:84-90.

Anzenberger G, Falk B. 2012. Monogamy and family life in callitrichid monkeys: deviations, social dynamics and captive management. International Zoo Yearbook 46(1):109-122.

Baker KC, Seres M, Aureli F, DeWaal FBM. 2000. Injury risks among chimpanzees in three housing conditions. American Journal of Primatology 51:151-175.

Beisner BA, Jackson ME, Cameron A, McCowan B. 2012. Sex ratio, conflict dynamics, and wounding in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 137:137-147.

Bloomstrand A, Maple T. 1987. Management and husbandry of African monkeys in captivity. In: Zucker EL, editor. Comparative behavior of African monkeys. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc. p 197-234.

Coleman K. 2012. Individual differences in temperament and behavioral management practices for nonhuman primates. Applied Animal Behavior Science 137(3):106-113.

Fitch AL, Merhalski JJ, Bloomsmith MA. 1989. Social housing for captive adult male chimpanzees: Comparing single-male and multi-male social groups.  American Journal of Primatology Supplement 1:87-91 .

Leonardi R, Buchanan-Smith HM, Dufour V, MacDonald C, Whiten A. 2010. Living together: behavior and welfare in single and mixed species groups of capuchin (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). American Journal of Primatology 72:33-47.

Macedonia JM. 1987. Effects of housing differences upon activity budgets in captive sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). Zoo Biology 6(1):55-67.

McCowan B, Beisner BA, Capitanio JP, Jackson ME, Cameron AN, Seil S, Atwill ER, Fushing H. 2011. Network stability is a balancing act of personality, power, and conflict dynamics in rhesus macaque societies. PloS One 6(8):e22350.

Oates-O’Brien RS, Farver TB, Anderson-Vicino KC, McCowan B, Lerche NW. 2010. Predictors of matrilineal overthrows in large captive breeding groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of the American Association of Laboratory Animal Science 49:196-201.

Price EE, Stoinski TS. 2007. Group size: Determinants in the wild and implications for the captive housing of wild mammals in zoos.  Applied Animal Behaviourl Science  103(3):255-264.

Reinhardt V, Dan Houser W, Eisele SG, Champoux M. 1987. Social enrichment of the environment with infants for singly caged adult rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology 6(4):365-371.

Ross SR, Bloomsmith MA, Bettinger TL, Wagner KE. 2009. The influence of captive adolescent male chimpanzees on wounding: Management and welfare implications. Zoo Biology 28:623-634.

Social Housing and Positive Reinforcement Training

Desmond T, Laule G, McNary J. 1987. Training to enhance socialization and reproduction in drills. In: Proceedings of the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums [AAZPA] Western Regional Conference. Wheeling, WV. p 435-441.

Pomerantz O, Terkel J. 2009. Effects of positive reinforcement training techniques on the psychological welfare of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 71(8):687-695.

Schapiro SJ, Perlman JE, Boudreau BA. 2001. Manipulating the affiliative interactions of group-housed rhesus macaques using positive reinforcement training techniques. American Journal of Primatology 55:137–149.

Schapiro SJ, Bloomsmith MA, Laule GE. 2003. Positive reinforcement training as a technique to alter nonhuman primate behavior: quantitative assessments of effectiveness. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(3):175-187.

Veeder CL, Bloomsmith MA, McMillan JL, Perlman JE, Martin AL. 2009. Positive reinforcement training to enhance the voluntary movement of group-housed sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys).  Journal of the American Association of Laboratory Animal Science 48(2):192-195.

Social Housing and Impacts on Immunity, Physiology, and Disease

Armstrong DM, Santymire RM. 2013. Hormonal and Behavioral Variation in Pied Tamarins Housed in Different Management Conditions. Zoo Biology 32(3):299-306.

Benton CG, West MW, Hall SM, Marko ST, Johnson JC. 2013. Effect of short-term pair housing of juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on immunologic parameters. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 52: 240-246.

Capitanio JP. 1998. Social experience and immune system measures in laboratory-housed macaques: Implications for management and research. ILAR Journal 39(1):12-20.

Coe CL. 1993. Psychosocial factors and immunity in nonhuman primates: a review. Psychosomatic Medicine 55(3):298-308.

Coelho AM, Carey KD, Shade RE. 1991. Assessing the effects of social environment on blood pressure and heart rates of baboons. American journal of primatology 23(4):257-267.

Mendoza SP. 1991. Sociophysiology of well-being in nonhuman primates. Laboratory Animal Science 41(4):344-349.

Schapiro SJ. 2002. Effects of social manipulations and environmental enrichment on behavior and cell-mediated immune responses in rhesus macaques. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 73:271–278.

Schapiro SJ, Bernacky BJ. 2012. Socialization strategies and disease transmission in captive colonies of nonhuman primates. American Journal of Primatology 74:518-527.

Smith AS, Birnie AK, French JA. 2011. Social isolation affects partner-directed social behavior and cortisol during pair formation in marmosets, Callithrix geoffroyi. Physiology & Behavior 104(5):955-961.

Other Social Housing Resources

Carlson J. 2008. Safe pair housing of macaques. Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, D.C.

Social Housing of Laboratory Animals Selected Citations (2014). Retrieved August 17, 2014, from

Symposium on Social Housing of Laboratory Animals (2013). Retrieved August 17, 2014, from